AI Archival: A Complete History of Artificial Intelligence


Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, as critical as the natural intelligence displayed by animals including humans. AI research has been defined because the sphere of study of intelligent agents, which refers to any system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals.

The term “artificial intelligence” had previously been accustomed to describe machines that mimic and display “human” cognitive skills that are associated with the human mind, like “learning” and “problem-solving”. This definition has since been rejected by major AI researchers who now describe AI in terms of rationality and acting rationally, which does not limit how intelligence is articulated.

Artificial Intelligence applications include advanced web search engines (e.g., Google), recommendation systems (used by YouTube, Amazon, and Netflix), understanding human speech (such as Siri and Alexa), self-driving cars (e.g., Tesla), automated decision-making and competing at the most effective level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go).

As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to wish “intelligence” are often far from the definition of AI, a phenomenon observed because of the Artificial Intelligence effect. As an example, optical character recognition is often excluded from things considered to be Artificial Intelligent, having become a routine technology. Any Artificial Intelligence system must be able to have some of the following characteristics: Observation, analytical ability, problem-solving, learning, etc.

Artificial Intelligence research has tried and discarded many alternative approaches since its founding, including simulating the brain, modeling human problem solving, a system of logic, large databases of information, and imitating animal behavior. within the primary decades of the 21st century, highly mathematical-statistical machine learning has dominated the sphere, and this method has proved highly successful, helping to unravel many challenging problems throughout industry and academia.

The various sub-fields of AI research are centered around particular goals and also the employment of particular tools. the standard goals of Artificial Intelligence research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, language processing, perception, and the flexibleness to maneuver and manipulate objects.

Artificial intelligence was created as an educational science in 1956, and it has gone through multiple waves of optimism, disappointment, and funding loss (known as an “AI winter”), followed by new approaches, success, and renewed financing in the years thereafter. General intelligence (the ability to unravel an arbitrary problem) is among the field’s long-term goals.

To resolve these problems, Artificial Intelligence researchers have adapted and integrated an outsized range of problem-solving techniques—including search and mathematical optimization, system, artificial neural networks, and methods supported by statistics, probability, and economics.

Artificial Intelligence also draws upon bailiwick, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and lots of other fields. The field was founded on the concept that human intelligence “can be so precisely described that a machine could even be made to simulate it”, this raised philosophical arguments about the mind and thus the moral consequences of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence; these issues have previously been explored by myth, fiction, and philosophy since antiquity.

Fantasy writers and futurologists have since suggested that AI may become an existential risk to humanity if its rational capacities don’t seem to be overseen.

History of Artificial Intelligence

Fiction and Early Concepts

Artificial beings with intelligence emerged in antiquity as storytelling devices and were widely employed in fiction, like in Frankenstein or R.U.R. by Mary Shelley. by the dramatist. These characters and their fates raised many of the identical questions currently being debated within the ethics of Artificial Intelligence. The study of mechanical or “formal” thought began with ancient philosophers and mathematicians.

Alan Turing: Father of AI
Alan Turning: Father of AI

The study of formal logic led to Alan Turing’s theory of arithmetic, which suggested that by mixing simple symbols like “0” and “1” a machine could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction. This understanding that digital computers can simulate any formal reasoning process is understood because of the Church-Turing thesis.

Church-Turing’s thesis, together with concurrent discoveries in neurobiology, scientific theory, and cybernetics, prompted researchers to think about the chance of building an electronic brain. the primary work now generally accepted as Artificial Intelligence was McCullouch and Pitts’ 1943 formal design for Turing’s complete “artificial neurons”.

Initial Research

Within the 1950s, two visions emerged about how computing might be achieved. One vision, called symbolic AI or GOFAI, was to use computers to make a symbol of the planet and systems that would consider the globe. The supporters were all Newell, Herbert A. Simon and Marvin Minsky. Closely associated with this approach was the “heuristic search” approach, which likened intelligence to an issue of exploring an area of possible answers.

The second view, referred to as the connectionist approach, focused on achieving intelligence through learning. Proponents of this approach, notably Frank Rosenblatt, attempted to attach perceptrons in a way inspired by the connections between neurons. James Manyika et al have compared the 2 minds (symbolic AI) and brain (connectionist) approaches. Manyika argues that symbolic approaches dominated the push for AI during this era, partially due to their association with the intellectual traditions of Descarte, Boole, Gottlob Frege, Earl Russell, and others.

Connectionist approaches supported cybernetics or artificial neural networks are eclipsed but have gained new importance in recent decades. the sphere of Artificial Intelligence research was born in 1956 during a seminar at college. Participants became the founders and leaders of AI research. They and their students created programs that were labeled “amazing” by the press: computers learned checkers strategies, solved word problems in algebra, proved logical theorems and spoke English.

By the mid-1960s, research within u. s. had been heavily funded by the Department of Defense and laboratories had been founded around the world. Researchers in the 1960s and 1970s were convinced that symbolic approaches would eventually reach creating a synthetic machine of general intelligence and saw this because of the goal of their field. Herbert Simon predicted that “in 20 years machines are going to be ready to do any job an individual can do”.

Marvin Minsky agreed, writing: “Within a generation … the matter of making ‘artificial intelligence is going to be substantially solved.” They didn’t see the problem with a number of the remaining tasks. Progress slowed and in 1974 the US and UK governments halted, in response to criticism from Sir James Lighthill and continued pressure from the legislature to fund more productive, exploratory AI research projects. the subsequent years would later be noted because of the “winter of AI,” a time when it was difficult to get funding for computer science projects.

From expert systems to machine learning

Within the early 1980s, Artificial Intelligence research was welcomed by the commercial success of expert systems, a sort of AI program that simulated the knowledge and analytical skills of human experts. By 1985, the AI ​​market had grown to over $1 billion. At the identical time, Japan’s fifth-generation computing project inspired the US and UK governments to revive funding for university research. However, starting with the collapse of the Lisp machine market in 1987, AI again fell into disrepute and started a second longer winter.

Many researchers began to question whether the symbolic approach was capable of mimicking all human cognitive processes, specifically perception, robotics, learning, and pattern recognition. variety of researchers has begun to explore “subsymbolic” approaches to specific AI problems. Robotics researchers like Rodney Brooks rejected token AI and focused on fundamental engineering problems that will allow robots to maneuver, survive, and learn their environment. within the mid-1980s, interest in neural networks and “connectionism” was revived by Geoffrey Hinton, David Rumelhart, et al.. Soft computing tools were developed within the 1980s, such as B. neural networks, neurons, fuzzy systems, Gray systems theory, evolutionary calculations, and plenty of statistical or mathematical optimization tools.

Within the late 1990s and early 21st century, AI gradually recovered its reputation by finding specific solutions to specific problems. The limited focus allowed researchers to provide verifiable results, use more mathematical methods, and collaborate with other fields (such as statistics, economics, and mathematics). In 2000, the solutions developed by computing researchers were widely used, although within the 1990s they were rarely stated as “artificial intelligence”.

Faster computers, algorithmic improvements, and access to large amounts of information have enabled advances in machine learning and perception; Data-intensive deep learning methods began to dominate accuracy criteria around 2012. in keeping with Bloomberg’s Jack Clark, 2015 was a milestone for AI, with the number of software projects using l Artificial Intelligence within Google going from “sporadic use” in 2012 to over 2,700 projects.

He attributes this to a rise in affordable neural networks, followed by a rise in cloud computing infrastructure and a rise in research tools and datasets. during a 2017 survey, one in five companies said that they had “integrated AI into a suggestion or process”. the degree of AI research (measured by the overall number of publications) increased by 50% between the years 2015-to and 2019.

Many academic researchers feared that AI was no longer pursuing its original goal of creating versatile, fully intelligent machines. Much of the current research focuses on statistical Artificial Intelligence, which is mostly used to solve specific problems, even with highly efficient techniques like deep learning. These concerns led to the subfield of general artificial intelligence (or “AGI”), which in the 2010s had several well-funded institutions.

What the future entails

Artificial Intelligence (AI) may be a breakthrough discipline of engineering that’s poised to become a key component of several future technologies like big data, robotics, and therefore the Internet of Things (IoT). within the coming years, it’ll still be a technical trailblazer. AI has gone from phantasy to reality in a few years. Machines that assist people with intelligence may be found within the universe in addition to fantasy films. We now sleep in a world of AI, which was only a story some years ago.

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Apoorva Gupta
Apoorva Gupta

Hello! I am Apoorva Gupta. I'm an author at TCD. I am a full-stack development and graphic designing enthusiast.

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